Water relation in plants: role of water in plant metabolism, osmosis, imbibitions, diffusion, water potential and its components, absorption of water, mechanism of absorption, ascent of sap, Stomata, structure, distribution, classification, mechanism of opening and closing of stomata, guttation, transpiration, factors affecting transpiration. Different types of stresses, water, heat and cold tolerance, mechanism of tolerance. Plant nutrition: essentiality, mechanism of absorption, role in plant metabolism. Photosynthesis, importance of photosynthesis, structure and function of chloroplast, dark and light reaction, CO2 fixation, C3,C4 and CAM, advantages of C4 pathway, photorespiration and its implications, Factors affecting photosynthesis. Respiration, glycolysis, TCA cycle and Electron transport chain, ATP synthesis and factors affecting the respiration, Phytohormones, physiological role in controlling plant process. Environmental stimuli for plant development.
Growth and development- definition, component, different stages of growth, growth curves, growth analysis in horticultural crops. leaf area index (LAI)- optimum LAI in horticultural crops, canopy and photosynthetic productivity, Plant bioregulators- auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene inhibitors and retardants, basic functions, biosynthesis, role in crop growth and development, propagation, flowering, fruit setting, fruit thinning, fruit development, fruit drop and fruit ripening. Flowering – factors affecting flowering, physiology of flowering, photoperiodism- long day, short day and day neutral plants, vernalisation and its application in horticulture. Pruning and training- physiological basis of traning and pruning, source and sink relationship, translocation of assimilates. Physiology of seed development and maturation, seed dormancy and bud dormancy, causes and breaking methods in horticultural crops. Physiology of fruit growth and development, fruit setting, factors affecting fruit set and development, physiology of ripening of fruits- climacteric and non climacteric fruits.